Writing a discussion for a scientific paper

In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods.

Ideally, you should limit yourself to working on small sections of about five pages at a time [ 14 ]. In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs. The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages Fig.

Starting with Materials and Methods If you still struggle with starting a paper, then write the Materials and Methods section first. Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. Click here to return to our scientific editing article library.

Open in a separate window Adapted from Swales and Feak and Hess [ 1112 ].

Writing a Discussion Section

Problems to Avoid Do not waste time restating your results. Remember that the data are the data: Moreover, it is also the best stage to decide to which publication you will submit the paper. The information should include: Open in a separate window Adapted from Swales and Feak [ 11 ]. However, interpretations gradually and secretly creep into research papers: Revising is a difficult but useful skill, which academic writers obtain with years of practice.

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: The Discussion

In contrast to the macrostructure revision, which is a linear process and is done usually through a detailed outline and by sections, microstructure revision is a non-linear process.

You will submit your paper tomorrow, and regardless of the outcome, you know that you can do it. One of the most frequent mistakes of the novice writer is to assume the importance of his findings.

The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Consider what new directions are supported by your findings. Most studies yield multiple results. The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness [ 4 ].

Some investigators prefer to place this section at the end of the first paragraph. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.

University of Michigan Press; Open in a separate window Now that you have expanded your outline, you are ready for the next step: Indeed, for most journals, this is a very brief section of about to words, but it might be the most difficult section due to its importance.

The Introduction should not be long. Relate this section to the first paragraph of the Discussion. Make Suggestions for Further Research You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper].

EGFR-overexpressing cancers are highly aggressive and have a higher tendency to metastasize.

How to Write Your First Research Paper

Location data must be as precise as possible: When you create the first draft, do not succumb to the temptation of editing. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered.

Since you have all your notes, it should not be problematic for you to describe the experimental design and procedures. Do they affect the ability to generalize your findings. In the discussion you should refer to the literature when explaining and discussing your results.

What are your most significant results. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Discuss your overall conclusion and the major impact of your study.

Using first person can help emphasize a point or illustrate a contrasting finding. Talking through ideas allows people to conceptualize and organize thoughts to find their direction without wasting time on unnecessary writing.

What are your supporting results?.

How to Write a Strong Discussion in Scientific Manuscripts

Writing the Scientific Paper. W hen you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.) T he scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific.

Recommendations for further research can be included in either the discussion or conclusion of your paper, but do not repeat your recommendations in the both sections. Think about the overall narrative flow of your paper to. Feb 12,  · Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician.

The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Scientific Writing Workshops If you like our articles, try our workshops!

Our articles are based on the material from our scientific writing workshops, which cover these and many other topics more thoroughly, with more examples and discussion.

How to Write a Strong Discussion in Scientific Manuscripts

Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process.

This is the system we will use.

How to Write Your First Research Paper

Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate].

Writing a discussion for a scientific paper
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How to Write Guide: Sections of the Paper